Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site lists PART 2

Compiled by Ann Rose Laurence

IF Nuclear Facility Catastrophes Ever Hit, the Earth could GLOW IN THE DARK

Had no idea the huge amount of nuclear plants on planet earth. (If ever a couple of seismic disasters occur simultaneously near nuclear plants — Earth could glow in the dark!!!)

Image may contain: sky, water and outdoor

28 nuclear reactors in the United States could suddenly fail due to earthquakes… most are located along the East Coast

Could a massive earthquake severely damage nuclear plants? That depends on who you ask.

According to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, American nuclear plants are supposedly built to withstand earthquakes and other “environmental hazards.”

“Even those plants that are located outside of areas with extensive seismic activity are designed for safety in the event of such a natural disaster. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires all of its licensees to take seismic activity into account when designing and maintaining its nuclear power plants,” the federal agency says on its website. [1]



No automatic alt text available.

LOUISIANA has two NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS – but three plants affect the state according to Louisiana Governor’s Office on Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness. (1) Grand Gulf #1, located in Port Gibson, near Vicksburg, Mississippi; (2) River Bend Station, Unit 1 — is the one actually located in St. Francisville, Louisiana (and it is huge); and (3) Waterford #3, located in Killona, St. Charles Parish, Louisiana.

No automatic alt text available.

(1) Grand Gulf #1, located in Port Gibson, near Vicksburg, Mississippi

No automatic alt text available.

Grand Gulf Nuclear plant gets OK to operate through 2044

Commissioned 06/21/2004; Decommission Date – 11/01/2044

PHOTO BELOW – The Grand Gulf Nuclear Power Plant is pictured with the flooding Mississippi river in the background in Grand Gulf, Miss. on May 17, 2011.
Construction on Grand Gulf was completed in 1985. After a 2012 upgrade, the facility became the largest single-unit nuclear generating station in the U.S. and the fifth largest in the world, according to information from Entergy.
Electricity will keep pumping from the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station for at least two more decades.

The plant had its operating license renewed for an additional 20 years through Nov. 1, 2044, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission announced Thursday.

The Grand Gulf plant in Port Gibson was the first and remains the only nuclear power plant to produce electricity in Mississippi. The plant contributes power into Entergy’s service territory, delivering about 1.2 gigawatts of electricity to its customers. [2]

Image may contain: sky, mountain, outdoor, nature and water

Image may contain: text, outdoor and nature

Grand Gulf Nuclear Station | Entergy

Image may contain: sky and outdoor

No automatic alt text available. [3]


(2) River Bend Station, Unit 1 — is the one actually located in St. Francisville, West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana (and it is huge)

No automatic alt text available.

RIVER BEND NUCLEAR — River Bend Nuclear Power Plant United States of America is located at 24 MI NNW of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. Location coordinates are: Latitude= 30.727201018551, Longitude= -91.369143932063. This infrastructure is of TYPE Nuclear Power Plant with a design capacity of 1036 MWe. It has 1 unit(s). The first unit was commissioned in 1986. It is operated by ENTERGY GULF States INC..  [4]

Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Type 6 — Commissioned Date 06/16/1986; Decommission Date 08/29/2025.

No automatic alt text available.

River Bend has been increased in size

No automatic alt text available.GENERAL INFORMATION

River Bend Nuclear Generating Station is a nuclear power station on a 3,300-acre (1,300 ha) site near St. Francisville, Louisiana in West Feliciana Parish, approximately 30 miles (50 km) north of Baton Rouge.

The station has one sixth generation General Electric boiling water reactor that has a nominal gross electric output of about 1010 MWe.

River Bend is operated by Entergy, which owns 100% of the station through its subsidiary, Entergy Gulf States Louisiana.

River Bend supplies the residents of Louisiana with approximately 30% of their electricity.

The station also provides residents with over 600 full time jobs and has made the surrounding area a great place to live with high achieving academic schools with generous donations made to the local areas.

The station has been recognized as a high achieving site by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, INPO, and WANO


The Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s estimate of the risk each year of an earthquake intense enough to cause core damage to the reactor at River Bend was 1 in 40,000, according to an NRC study published in August 2010.


Unlike the Waterford Nuclear Generating Station downriver in Hahnville, River Bend continued operation throughout Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The plant was shut down during Hurricane Gustav in 2008.

The River Bend site was originally designed to have two identical units. Construction on Unit 1 began in 1973, but Unit 2 never broke ground. In 1984, plans to construct Unit 2 were officially abandoned.  Commercial operation began on June 16, 1986.

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles , concerned primarily with exposure to, and inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, and an ingestion pathway zone of about 50 miles, concerned primarily with ingestion of food and liquid contaminated by radioactivity. [5]


(3) Waterford #3, located in Killona (actually Hahnville), St. Charles Parish, Louisiana. — Pressurized Water Reactor; Commissioned 06/16/1986 – Decommission – 12/18/2024.

No automatic alt text available.


No automatic alt text available.  [6]

The Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3, also known as Waterford 3

Image may contain: text


The Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3, also known as Waterford 3, is a nuclear power plant located on a 3,000-acre (1,200 ha) plot in Killona, Louisiana, in St. Charles Parish.

This plant has one Combustion Engineering two-loop pressurized water reactor. The plant produces 1,218 megawatts of electricity since the site’s last refuel in October 2009. It has a dry ambient pressure containment building.

On August 28, 2005, Waterford shut down due to Hurricane Katrina approaching and declared an unusual event (the least-serious of a four-level emergency classification scale). Shortly after Katrina, Waterford restarted and resumed normal operation.

During the 2011 Mississippi River floods, the power plant, which is located about 25 miles west of New Orleans, was restarted on May 12, after a refueling shutdown on April 6.

The plant also shut down on October 17, 2012, for steam-generator replacement. The plant returned to full power in the middle of January 2013.

Waterford is operated by Entergy Nuclear and is owned by Entergy Louisiana, Inc.

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s estimate of the risk each year of an earthquake intense enough to cause core damage to the reactor at Waterford was 1 in 50,000, according to an NRC study published in August 2010. [7]




WORLD NUCLEAR ORG. — Nuclear Power in the USA

(Updated September 2018)

The USA is the world’s largest producer of nuclear power, accounting for more than 30% of worldwide nuclear generation of electricity.
The country’s nuclear reactors produced 805 billion kWh in 2017, 20% of total electrical output. There are two reactors under construction.
Following a 30-year period in which few new reactors were built, it is expected that two more new units will come online soon after 2020, these resulting from 16 license applications made since mid-2007 to build 24 new nuclear reactors.
Government policy changes since the late 1990s have helped pave the way for significant growth in nuclear capacity.
Some states have liberalized wholesale electricity markets, which makes the financing of capital-intensive power projects difficult, and coupled with lower gas prices since 2009, have put the economic viability of some existing reactors and proposed projects in doubt.
The first zero-emission credit programs have commenced, in New York, Illinois and New Jersey.

In 2017, US electricity generation was 4015 TWh (billion kWh) net, 1273 TWh (32%) of it from gas, 1208 TWh (30%) from coal-fired plant, 805 TWh (20%) nuclear, 300 TWh from hydro, and 387 TWh from other renewables (US Energy Information Administration data). Annual electricity demand is projected to increase to 5000 TWh in 2030, though in the short term it is depressed and has not exceeded the 2007 level. Annual per capita electricity consumption in 2017 was about 12,300 kWh. Total net summer capacity is about 1080 GWe, less than one-tenth of which is nuclear.

Nuclear power plays a major role. The USA has 98 operating nuclear power reactors in 30 states, operated by 30 different power companies. Since 2001 these plants have achieved an average capacity factor of over 90%, generating up to 807 TWh per year and accounting for about 20% of the total electricity generated. The average capacity factor has risen from 50% in the early 1970s, to 70% in 1991, and it passed 90% in 2002, remaining at around this level since. In 2016 it was a record 92.5%, compared with wind 34.7% (EIA data). The industry invests about $7.5 billion per year in maintenance and upgrades of the plants.

Average nuclear generation costs have come down from $40/MWh in 2012 to $34/MWh in 2017.

There are 65 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) with a combined capacity of about 65 GWe and 33 boiling water reactors (BWRs) with a combined capacity of about 34 GWe – for a total capacity of 99,221 MWe (see Nuclear Power in the USA Appendix 1: US Operating Nuclear Reactors). Almost all the US nuclear generating capacity comes from reactors built between 1967 and 1990. Until 2013 there had been no new construction starts since 1977, largely because for a number of years gas generation was considered more economically attractive and because construction schedules during the 1970s and 1980s had frequently been extended by opposition, compounded by heightened safety fears following the Three Mile Island accident in 1979. A further PWR – Watts Bar 2 – started up in 2016 following Tennessee Valley Authority’s (TVA’s) decision in 2007 to complete the construction of the unit.

Despite a near halt in new construction of more than 30 years, US reliance on nuclear power has grown. In 1980, nuclear plants produced 251 billion kWh, accounting for 11% of the country’s electricity generation. In 2008, that output had risen to 809 billion kWh and nearly 20% of electricity, providing more than 30% of the electricity generated from nuclear power worldwide. Much of the increase came from the 47 reactors, all approved for construction before 1977, that came online in the late 1970s and 1980s, more than doubling US nuclear generation capacity. The US nuclear industry has also achieved remarkable gains in power plant utilization through improved refueling, maintenance and safety systems at existing plants. Average generating cost in 2014 was $36.27 per MWh ($44.14 at single-unit sites and $33.76 at multi-unit sites), including fuel and capital, and average operating cost was $21/MWh.

While there are plans for a number of new reactors (see section on Preparing for new build below), no more than two more new units will come online by 2021. Since about 2010 the prospect of low natural gas prices continuing for several years has dampened plans for new nuclear capacity. In May 2016 the Energy Information Administration (EIA) said that nearly 19 GWe of new gas-fired generation capacity was expected online by 2019, mostly using shale gas. It later reported that 9 GWe of gas capacity had come online in 2016, along with 8.7 GWe wind and 7.7 GWe solar. There was a net capacity gain in 2016 of 15 GWe after about 12 GWe retirements. >>>> [8]


No automatic alt text available.Given that nuclear plants generate nearly 20% of the nation’s electricity overall and 63% of its carbon‐free electricity, even a modest increase in electricity demand would require significant new nuclear capacity by 2025 in addition to the two nuclear reactors currently under construction in order to maintain this share. If today’s nuclear plants retire after 60 years of operation, 22 GWe of new nuclear capacity would be needed by 2030, and 55 GWe by 2035 to maintain a 20% nuclear share.

Capital expenditure on existing nuclear plants peaked in 2012 due to post-Fukushima upgrades, and it declined 26% to 2015 when capital investment in operating plants was $6.25 billion, according to the Nuclear Energy Institute.

Improved performance

At the end of 1991 (prior to passage of the Energy Policy Act), there was 97,135 MWe of operable nuclear generating capacity in the USA. In March 2009, it was 101,119 MWe. The small increase concealed some significant changes:

A decrease of 5,709 MWe, due to the premature shutdown of eight reactors, due to their having high operating costs.
A net increase of 6,223 MWe, due to changes in power ratings.
An increase of 3,470 MWe due to the start-up of two new reactors (Comanche Peak 2, Watts Bar 1) and the restart of one unit (Browns Ferry 1).

So far more than 140 uprates have been implemented, totaling over 6500 MWe, and another 3400 MWe is prospective, under NRC review.

The Shaw Group has undertaken about half of the uprates so far, and early in 2010 it said that companies are planning more uprate projects and aiming for bigger increases than in the past. It perceived a $25 billion market.  Further uprate projects are in sight, many being $250 to $500 million each.

The largest US nuclear operator, Exelon, has plans to uprate much of its reactor fleet to provide the equivalent of one new power plant by 2017 – some 1,300-1,500 MWe, at a cost of about $3.5 billion. The company has already added 1,100 MWe in uprates over the decade to 2009. In addition to increasing power, many of the uprates involve component upgrades. These improve the reliability of the units and support operating license extensions (see below),which require extensive review of plant equipment conditioned.


US nuclear power reactors under construction.

US nuclear power reactors planned and proposedNo automatic alt text available.

US nuclear power reactors planned and proposed

No automatic alt text available.

No automatic alt text available.

No automatic alt text available.

Reactor designs undergoing US design certification or soon expected to do so are:

The Korean APR1400 reactor, which is operating in South Korea since 2016 and under construction in the United Arab Emirates. Following 11 pre-application meetings, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power submitted a design certification application to the NRC in October 2013. However, further detail was requested, and the revised submission was accepted by the NRC in March 2015. The final safety report is expected late in 2018.
The Mitsubishi US-APWR, a 1700 MWe design developed from that for a 1538 MWe reactor planned for Tsuruga in Japan. The application was submitted in December 2007 and certification was expected to be completed in February 2016, but Mitsubishi delayed the NRC schedule for “several years”. European certification for the almost identical EU-APWR was granted in October 2014. Two US-APWR reactors were proposed in the Luminant-Mitsubishi application for Comanche Peak, but Mitsubishi has withdrawn from this project.
The Russian VVER-1200 reactor which is operating at Novovoronezh II and being built at Leningrad II may be submitted for US design certification through Rusatom Overseas, according to Rosatom.

A reactor design formerly undergoing US design certification:

The US Evolutionary Power Reactor (US EPR), an adaptation of Areva’s EPR to make the European design consistent with US electricity frequencies. The main development of the type was to be through UniStar Nuclear Energy, but other US proposals also involved it. The application was submitted in December 2007 and the design certification rule was expected after mid-2015, with delays due to the complexity of digital instrumentation and control systems. Areva then delayed the NRC schedule and in March 2015 indefinitely suspended the application. The 1600 MWe EPR is being built in Finland, France, and Guangdong in China, and is planned for UK.

In addition, several designs of small modular reactors (SMRs) are proceeding towards NRC design certification application or the alternative two-step route of construction permit then operating license:

A demonstration unit of the 160 MWe Holtec SMR-160 PWR (with external steam generator) is proposed at Savannah River with DOE support, and a construction permit application is likely, or a similar application in Canada. In September 2016 Mitsubishi Electric Power Products and its Japanese parent became a partner in the project, to undertake the I&C design and help with licensing. In 2017 SNC-Lavalin joined the project. South Carolina and NuHub also back the proposal.
A demonstration unit of the NuScale multi-application small reactor, a 50 MWe integral PWR planned for the Idaho National Laboratory. Subsequent deployment of 12-module power plants in western states is envisaged under the Western Initiative for Nuclear. The NRC accepted NuScale’s design certification application in 2017 and a COL application is planned for mid 2020. Nuscale had spent some $170 million on licensing to mid-2015, and expects the NRC review to take 40 months, with the first unit operating in the mid-2020s. In 2013 NuScale secured up to $226 million DOE support for the design, and applied for the second part of its loan guarantee in September 2017. Further details under the section on UAMPS below.
SCEG is evaluating the potential of X-energy’s Xe-100 pebble-bed SMR (50 MWe, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor) to replace coal-fired plants, in 200 MWe ‘four-pack’ installations.
In August 2015 Russia’s AKME-Engineering received a US patent for its modular SVBR-100 lead-bismuth cooled integral fast reactor. The company said that it wants to protect its intellectual property as it prepares for the construction of a prototype SVBR-100 unit at Dimitrovgrad. No plans for the USA have been announced.

In February 2014 the NRC said that its most optimistic scenario for awarding design certification for small reactors such as SMRs was 41 months, assuming they were light water types (PWR or BWR).

A fuller account of new reactor designs, including those certified but not marketed in the USA, is in the information page on **Advanced Nuclear Power Reactors, or for the small modular reactors, in the page on **Small Nuclear Power Reactors.

** INDICATES — a click on link in World Nuclear Association website article below.

Nuclear Power in the USA Appendix 1: US Operating Nuclear Reactors

Reactor Total (99 units)

Net summer capacity (MWe)  99,221

US Energy Information Administration (EIA) data. Browns Ferry 3, Calvert Cliffs 2, Monticello, and Peach Bottom 2&3 uprated since latest EIA data released. Capacities shown above reflect uprates. [9]


NUKEWORKER (dot) COM — Nuclear Facilities, North America, USA — Region I (North East), Region II (South East), Region III (Mid West), and Region IV (West) <<< click on links – several photo albums  [10]

No automatic alt text available.

^^^This site has much more info to dig into on this topic as well.

SOURCES: Compiled by Ann Rose Laurence

[1] NaturalNews  (Featured Image credit)

[1a] UCUSA – Union of Concerned Scientists (Interactive Map)

[2] MississippiToday

[3] NukeWorker

[4] GlobalEnergyObservatory

[5] Wikipedia — River Bend Nuclear Generating Station


[7] Wikipedia – Waterford Nuclear Generating Station

[8] Nuclear World

[9] World

[10] NukeWorker